Monday, October 28, 2013

Prime Ministers Fellowship Scheme For Doctoral Research

 Prime Ministers Fellowship Scheme For Doctoral Research a Joint Initiative of Science & Engineering Research Board & Confederation of Indian Industry To Build Future Leaders in Industrial Research & Development APPLICATIONS ARE INVITED FROM DOCTORAL FELLOWS (IN PARTNERSHIP WITH INDUSTRY) TO AVAIL DOUBLE SCHOLARSHIPS IN THE AREAS OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING, AGRICULTURE & MEDICINE

THE SCHEME : To attract talent for Doctoral Research, nurture leadership qualities in research scholars, provide them exposure to international best practices, innovative ways of thinking and to boost industrial research by academic institutions, the government and industry have jointly developed a scheme for supporting aspiring 100 PhD scholars every year with double scholarship (up to Rs. 6 lakh perannum), 50% ofwhich will be provided by government and balance 50% by a sponsoring company, for doing research as assigned by the sponsoring company, for four years. The fellow will receive PhD degree by doing this industrial research.

SELECTION PARAMETERS

• A high level Apex Council consisting of members from academia, industry and government will review the applications and select the candidates for award of PM Fellowships.

• The project should be innovative and of high scientific merit; with discrete R&D as opposed to exploratory investigation.

• The proposed research should have a high potential to translate into a business opportunity and commercialization.

• High credibility, capacity of doctoral fellow and the institution.

ELIGIBILITY

• Doctoral fellow should have registered for full-time PhD program in the academic year 2013-14 in any recognized Indian University/Institute/Research Laboratory

• Doctoral fellow should have identified (before applying) an industry partner who should be ready to support the research project financially and also lend technical and intellectual support.

• The topic of research should have practical relevance and industrial application as mutually agreed between applicants and sponsoring industry.

• The candidate and the proposed research topic should qualify on criteria of excellence and relevance and be of technical and scientific merit.

• The selected doctoral fellow should be willing to work with / in industry as and when required by the industry partner during the project period.



HOW TO APPLY

Applications have to be submitted on-line For application and detailed information, log on to: www.primeministerfellowshipscheme.com

Last date of On-line Submission of Application Form: November 30, 2013

CONTACT US
SS Kohli, Director, DST Email: pm.scheme@cii.in

Shalini S. Sharma, Head-Higher Education, Cll
Email: shalini.sharma@cii.in & neha.gupta@cii.in

Source : http://primeministerfellowshipscheme.com

Wednesday, October 9, 2013

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2013

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2013 to





Martin Karplus
Université de Strasbourg, France and Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA
Michael Levitt
Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA
and
Arieh Warshel
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
“for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems”

The computer — your Virgil in the world of atoms

Chemists used to create models of molecules using plastic balls and sticks. Today, the modelling is carried out in computers. In the 1970s, Martin Karplus, Michael Levitt and Arieh Warshel laid the foundation for the powerful programs that are used to understand and predict chemical processes. Computer models mirroring real life have become crucial for most advances made in chemistry today.
Chemical reactions occur at lightning speed. In a fraction of a millisecond, electrons jump from one atomic nucleus to the other. Classical chemistry has a hard time keeping up; it is virtually impossible to experimentally map every little step in a chemical process. Aided by the methods now awarded with the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, scientists let computers unveil chemical processes, such as a catalyst’s purification of exhaust fumes or the photosynthesis in green leaves.
The work of Karplus, Levitt and Warshel is ground-breaking in that they managed to make Newton’s classical physics work side-by-side with the fundamentally different quantum physics. Previously, chemists had to choose to use either or. The strength of classical physics was that calculations were simple and could be used to model really large molecules. Its weakness, it offered no way to simulate chemical reactions. For that purpose, chemists instead had to use quantum physics. But such calculations required enormous computing power and could therefore only be carried out for small molecules.
This year’s Nobel Laureates in chemistry took the best from both worlds and devised methods that use both classical and quantum physics. For instance, in simulations of how a drug couples to its target protein in the body, the computer performs quantum theoretical calculations on those atoms in the target protein that interact with the drug. The rest of the large protein is simulated using less demanding classical physics.
Today the computer is just as important a tool for chemists as the test tube. Simulations are so realistic that they predict the outcome of traditional experiments.
Read more about this year's prize
Popular Information
Pdf 1 MB
Scientific Background
Pdf 600 Kb
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Martin Karplus, U.S. and Austrian citizen. Born 1930 in Vienna, Austria. Ph.D. 1953 from California Institute of Technology, CA, USA. Professeur Conventionné, Université de Strasbourg, France and Theodore William Richards Professor of Chemistry, Emeritus, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.
http://chemistry.harvard.edu/people/martin-karplus
http://www-isis.u-strasbg.fr/biop/start

Michael Levitt, U.S., Brittish and Israeli citizen. Born 1947 in Pretoria, South Africa. Ph.D. 1971 from University of Cambridge, UK. Robert W. and Vivian K. Cahill Professor in Cancer Research, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

http://med.stanford.edu/profiles/Michael_Levitt
Arieh Warshel, U.S. and Israeli citizen. Born 1940 in Kibbutz Sde-Nahum, Israel. Ph.D. 1969 from Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel. Distinguished Professor, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
http://chem.usc.edu/faculty/Warshel.html

Source:  www.nobelprize.org

Tuesday, October 8, 2013

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2013

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2013 was awarded jointly to 
François Englert and Peter W. Higgs  



"for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider".

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Nobel Prize in Physics for 2013 to

François Englert
Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium
and

Peter W. Higgs
University of Edinburgh, UK

“for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider”

 

Here, at last!

François Englert and Peter W. Higgs are jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics 2013 for the theory of how particles acquire mass. In 1964, they proposed the theory independently of each other (Englert together with his now deceased colleague Robert Brout). In 2012, their ideas were confirmed by the discovery of a so called Higgs particle at the CERN laboratory outside Geneva in Switzerland..

The awarded theory is a central part of the Standard Model of particle physics that describes how the world is constructed. According to the Standard Model, everything, from flowers and people to stars and planets, consists of just a few building blocks: matter particles. These particles are governed by forces mediated by force particles that make sure everything works as it should.
The entire Standard Model also rests on the existence of a special kind of particle: the Higgs particle. This particle originates from an invisible field that fills up all space. Even when the universe seems empty this field is there. Without it, we would not exist, because it is from contact with the field that particles acquire mass. The theory proposed by Englert and Higgs describes this process.
On 4 July 2012, at the CERN laboratory for particle physics, the theory was confirmed by the discovery of a Higgs particle. CERN’s particle collider, LHC (Large Hadron Collider), is probably the largest and the most complex machine ever constructed by humans. Two research groups of some 3,000 scientists each, ATLAS and CMS, managed to extract the Higgs particle from billions of particle collisions in the LHC.

Even though it is a great achievement to have found the Higgs particle — the missing piece in the Standard Model puzzle — the Standard Model is not the final piece in the cosmic puzzle. One of the reasons for this is that the Standard Model treats certain particles, neutrinos, as being virtually massless, whereas recent studies show that they actually do have mass. Another reason is that the model only describes visible matter, which only accounts for one fifth of all matter in the cosmos. To find the mysterious dark matter is one of the objectives as scientists continue the chase of unknown particles at CERN.

Read more about this year's prize
Information for the Public
Pdf 3,8 mb
Scientific Background
Pdf 1,4 mb.

François Englert, Belgian citizen. Born 1932 in Etterbeek, Belgium. Ph.D. 1959 from Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium. Professor Emeritus at Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.
www.ulb.ac.be/sciences/physth/people_FEnglert.html
Peter W. Higgs, UK citizen. Born 1929 in Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. Ph.D. 1954 from King’s College, University of London, UK. Professor emeritus at University of Edinburgh, UK.
www.ph.ed.ac.uk/higgs/

Source: http://www.nobelprize.org/

DST-SERC SCHOOL ON NONLINEAR OPTICS AND MATERIALS


Organized by:
Department of Physics
SSN College of Engineering
Rajiv Gandhi Salai (OMR)
Kalavakkam, Chennai 603 110


Department of Physics
Pondicherry University
R.V. Nagar, Kalapet
Puducherry - 605 014


The DST-SERC School on NONLINEAR OPTICS AND MATERIALS will be held at the Department of Physics, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam, Tamilnadu during February 03 – 21, 2014.

About SERC School:

The objective of the school is to provide an in-depth knowledge of Nonlinear optics, materials, material preparation and use of high power lasers on Nonlinear optical applications. The school is designed to provide a systematic overview of new concepts which are emerging in the field of Nonlinear optics and optical materials.

Directors of the School

Prof. K. Porsezian, PU, Pondicherry
Dr. N.P. Rajesh, SSN CE, Chennai.

Participation & Funding
Applications are invited from research scholars, post-doctoral fellows, young faculty members from universities and colleges, and young researchers from R & D Centers, with interest in nonlinear optics and materials science, for participation in the School. A few bright and research motivated final year students of M.Sc. / M.Tech. with specialization in Nonlinear optics and materials science may also be selected. The total number of participants in the school is restricted to about forty. All the selected participants will be provided to-and-fro III AC train (or bus) fare,
free lodging and boarding. Interested persons shall send their applications, duly forwarded by Head of the Institution / Research Supervisor to Dr. N.P. Rajesh, School Director, by post on or before 31st October 2013. The selection will be on all India basis under DST Selection Procedures.

Self-financed Participants
Few participants from industry are permitted along with regular school attendees. Travel and lodging arrangements are to be made by
the participants on their own.

For further details, Contact:
Dr. N.P. Rajesh
Center for Crystal Growth
SSN College of Engineering
Rajiv Gandhi Salai (OMR)
Kalavakkam, Chennai - 603 110
Email: serc.nlom@ssn.edu.in,
serc.nlom@gmail.com
Website : www.ssn.edu.in
Phone : 044-27469700
Mobile : 99620 86789.

All Nobel Prizes in Physics

      The Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded 106 times to 194 Nobel Laureates between 1901 and 2012. John Bardeen is the only Nobel Laureate who has been awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics twice, in 1956 and 1972. This means that a total of 193 individuals have received the Nobel Prize in Physics. Click on the links to get more information.

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2013

The 2013 Nobel Prize in Physics has not been awarded yet. It will be announced on Tuesday 8 October, 11:45 a.m. CET at the earliest.

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2012

Serge Haroche and David J. Wineland
"for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011

Saul Perlmutter, Brian P. Schmidt and Adam G. Riess
"for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2010

Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov
"for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009

Charles Kuen Kao
"for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication"
Willard S. Boyle and George E. Smith
"for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit - the CCD sensor"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008

Yoichiro Nambu
"for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics"
Makoto Kobayashi and Toshihide Maskawa
"for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2007

Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg
"for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2006

John C. Mather and George F. Smoot
"for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2005

Roy J. Glauber
"for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence"
John L. Hall and Theodor W. Hänsch
"for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2004

David J. Gross, H. David Politzer and Frank Wilczek
"for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2003

Alexei A. Abrikosov, Vitaly L. Ginzburg and Anthony J. Leggett
"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2002

Raymond Davis Jr. and Masatoshi Koshiba
"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos"
Riccardo Giacconi
"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2001

Eric A. Cornell, Wolfgang Ketterle and Carl E. Wieman
"for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000

"for basic work on information and communication technology"
Zhores I. Alferov and Herbert Kroemer
"for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics"
Jack S. Kilby
"for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1999

Gerardus 't Hooft and Martinus J.G. Veltman
"for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1998

Robert B. Laughlin, Horst L. Störmer and Daniel C. Tsui
"for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997

Steven Chu, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji and William D. Phillips
"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1996

David M. Lee, Douglas D. Osheroff and Robert C. Richardson
"for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1995

"for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"
Martin L. Perl
"for the discovery of the tau lepton"
Frederick Reines
"for the detection of the neutrino"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1994

"for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter"
Bertram N. Brockhouse
"for the development of neutron spectroscopy"
Clifford G. Shull
"for the development of the neutron diffraction technique"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1993

Russell A. Hulse and Joseph H. Taylor Jr.
"for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1992

Georges Charpak
"for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1991

Pierre-Gilles de Gennes
"for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1990

Jerome I. Friedman, Henry W. Kendall and Richard E. Taylor
"for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1989

Norman F. Ramsey
"for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks"
Hans G. Dehmelt and Wolfgang Paul
"for the development of the ion trap technique"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1988

Leon M. Lederman, Melvin Schwartz and Jack Steinberger
"for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1987

J. Georg Bednorz and K. Alexander Müller
"for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986

Ernst Ruska
"for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope"
Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer
"for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1985

Klaus von Klitzing
"for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1984

Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer
"for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1983

Subramanyan Chandrasekhar
"for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars"
William Alfred Fowler
"for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1982

Kenneth G. Wilson
"for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1981

Nicolaas Bloembergen and Arthur Leonard Schawlow
"for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy"
Kai M. Siegbahn
"for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1980

James Watson Cronin and Val Logsdon Fitch
"for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1979

Sheldon Lee Glashow, Abdus Salam and Steven Weinberg
"for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1978

Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa
"for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics"
Arno Allan Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson
"for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1977

Philip Warren Anderson, Sir Nevill Francis Mott and John Hasbrouck van Vleck
"for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1976

Burton Richter and Samuel Chao Chung Ting
"for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1975

Aage Niels Bohr, Ben Roy Mottelson and Leo James Rainwater
"for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1974

Sir Martin Ryle and Antony Hewish
"for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1973

Leo Esaki and Ivar Giaever
"for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively"
Brian David Josephson
"for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effects"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1972

John Bardeen, Leon Neil Cooper and John Robert Schrieffer
"for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1971

Dennis Gabor
"for his invention and development of the holographic method"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1970

Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén
"for fundamental work and discoveries in magnetohydro- dynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics"
Louis Eugène Félix Néel
"for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1969

Murray Gell-Mann
"for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1968

Luis Walter Alvarez
"for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1967

Hans Albrecht Bethe
"for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1966

Alfred Kastler
"for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1965

Sin-Itiro Tomonaga, Julian Schwinger and Richard P. Feynman
"for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1964

Charles Hard Townes, Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov and Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov
"for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1963

Eugene Paul Wigner
"for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles"
Maria Goeppert Mayer and J. Hans D. Jensen
"for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1962

Lev Davidovich Landau
"for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1961

Robert Hofstadter
"for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons"
Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer
"for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1960

Donald Arthur Glaser
"for the invention of the bubble chamber"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1959

Emilio Gino Segrè and Owen Chamberlain
"for their discovery of the antiproton"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1958

Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov, Il´ja Mikhailovich Frank and Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm
"for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1957

Chen Ning Yang and Tsung-Dao (T.D.) Lee
"for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1956

William Bradford Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain
"for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1955

Willis Eugene Lamb
"for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum"
Polykarp Kusch
"for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1954

Max Born
"for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction"
Walther Bothe
"for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1953

Frits (Frederik) Zernike
"for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1952

Felix Bloch and Edward Mills Purcell
"for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1951

Sir John Douglas Cockcroft and Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton
"for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1950

Cecil Frank Powell
"for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1949

Hideki Yukawa
"for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1948

Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett
"for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1947

Sir Edward Victor Appleton
"for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1946

Percy Williams Bridgman
"for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made therewith in the field of high pressure physics"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1945

Wolfgang Pauli
"for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli Principle"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1944

Isidor Isaac Rabi
"for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1943

Otto Stern
"for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1942

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1941

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1940

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1939

Ernest Orlando Lawrence
"for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1938

Enrico Fermi
"for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1937

Clinton Joseph Davisson and George Paget Thomson
"for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1936

Victor Franz Hess
"for his discovery of cosmic radiation"
Carl David Anderson
"for his discovery of the positron"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1935

James Chadwick
"for the discovery of the neutron"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1934

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1933

Erwin Schrödinger and Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac
"for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1932

Werner Karl Heisenberg
"for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1931

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1930

Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman
"for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1929

Prince Louis-Victor Pierre Raymond de Broglie
"for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1928

Owen Willans Richardson
"for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1927

Arthur Holly Compton
"for his discovery of the effect named after him"
Charles Thomson Rees Wilson
"for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1926

Jean Baptiste Perrin
"for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1925

James Franck and Gustav Ludwig Hertz
"for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1924

Karl Manne Georg Siegbahn
"for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1923

Robert Andrews Millikan
"for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1922

Niels Henrik David Bohr
"for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1921

Albert Einstein
"for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1920

Charles Edouard Guillaume
"in recognition of the service he has rendered to precision measurements in Physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel steel alloys"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1919

Johannes Stark
"for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1918

Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck
"in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1917

Charles Glover Barkla
"for his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1916

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1915

Sir William Henry Bragg and William Lawrence Bragg
"for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1914

Max von Laue
"for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1913

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
"for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1912

Nils Gustaf Dalén
"for his invention of automatic regulators for use in conjunction with gas accumulators for illuminating lighthouses and buoys"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1911

Wilhelm Wien
"for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1910

Johannes Diderik van der Waals
"for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1909

Guglielmo Marconi and Karl Ferdinand Braun
"in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1908

Gabriel Lippmann
"for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1907

Albert Abraham Michelson
"for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1906

Joseph John Thomson
"in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1904

Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt)
"for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1903

Antoine Henri Becquerel
"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity"
Pierre Curie and Marie Curie, née Sklodowska
"in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1902

Hendrik Antoon Lorentz and Pieter Zeeman
"in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1901

Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen
"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him".

Source: http://www.nobelprize.org

Monday, October 7, 2013

Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013


jointly to
James E. Rothman, Randy W. Schekman
and Thomas C. Südhof
for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic,
a major transport system in our cells






Summary

The 2013 Nobel Prize honours three scientists who have solved the mystery of how the cell organizes its transport system. Each cell is a factory that produces and exports molecules. For instance, insulin is manufactured and released into the blood and chemical signals called neurotransmitters are sent from one nerve cell to another. These molecules are transported around the cell in small packages called vesicles. The three Nobel Laureates have discovered the molecular principles that govern how this cargo is delivered to the right place at the right time in the cell.
Randy Schekman discovered a set of genes that were required for vesicle traffic. James Rothman  unravelled protein machinery that allows vesicles to fuse with their targets to permit transfer of cargo. Thomas Südhof revealed how signals instruct vesicles to release their cargo with precision.
Through their discoveries, Rothman, Schekman and Südhof have revealed the exquisitely precise control system for the transport and delivery of cellular cargo. Disturbances in this system have deleterious effects and contribute to conditions such as neurological diseases, diabetes, and immunological disorders.

How cargo is transported in the cell

In a large and busy port, systems are required to ensure that the correct cargo is shipped to the correct destination at the right time. The cell, with its different compartments called organelles, faces a similar problem: cells produce molecules such as hormones, neurotransmitters, cytokines and enzymes that have to be delivered to other places inside the cell, or exported out of the cell, at exactly the right moment. Timing and location are everything. Miniature bubble-like vesicles, surrounded by membranes, shuttle the cargo between organelles or fuse with the outer membrane of the cell and release their cargo to the outside. This is of major importance, as it triggers nerve activation in the case of transmitter substances, or controls metabolism in the case of hormones. How do these vesicles know where and when to deliver their cargo?

Traffic congestion reveals genetic controllers

Randy Schekman was fascinated by how the cell organizes its transport system and in the 1970s decided to study its genetic basis by using yeast as a model system. In a genetic screen, he identified yeast cells with defective transport machinery, giving rise to a situation resembling a poorly planned public transport system. Vesicles piled up in certain parts of the cell. He found that the cause of this congestion was genetic and went on to identify the mutated genes. Schekman identified three classes of genes that control different facets of the cell´s transport system, thereby providing new insights into the tightly regulated machinery that mediates vesicle transport in the cell.

Docking with precision

James Rothman was also intrigued by the nature of the cell´s transport system. When studying vesicle transport in mammalian cells in the 1980s and 1990s, Rothman discovered that a protein complex enables vesicles to dock and fuse with their target membranes. In the fusion process, proteins on the vesicles and target membranes bind to each other like the two sides of a zipper. The fact that there are many such proteins and that they bind only in specific combinations ensures that cargo is delivered to a precise location. The same principle operates inside the cell and when a vesicle binds to the cell´s outer membrane to release its contents.
It turned out that some of the genes Schekman had discovered in yeast coded for proteins corresponding to those Rothman identified in mammals, revealing an ancient evolutionary origin of the transport system. Collectively, they mapped critical components of the cell´s transport machinery.

Timing is everything

Thomas Südhof was interested in how nerve cells communicate with one another in the brain. The signalling molecules, neurotransmitters, are released from vesicles that fuse with the outer membrane of nerve cells by using the machinery discovered by Rothman and Schekman. But these vesicles are only allowed to release their contents when the nerve cell signals to its neighbours. How is this release controlled in such a precise manner? Calcium ions were known to be involved in this process and in the 1990s, Südhof searched for calcium sensitive proteins in nerve cells. He identified molecular machinery that responds to an influx of calcium ions and directs neighbour proteins rapidly to bind vesicles to the outer membrane of the nerve cell. The zipper opens up and signal substances are released. Südhof´s discovery explained how temporal precision is achieved and how vesicles´ contents can be released on command.

Vesicle transport gives insight into disease processes

The three Nobel Laureates have discovered a fundamental process in cell physiology. These discoveries have had a major impact on our understanding of how cargo is delivered with timing and precision within and outside the cell.  Vesicle transport and fusion operate, with the same general principles, in organisms as different as yeast and man. The system is critical for a variety of physiological processes in which vesicle fusion must be controlled, ranging from signalling in the brain to release of hormones and immune cytokines. Defective vesicle transport occurs in a variety of diseases including a number of neurological and immunological disorders, as well as in diabetes. Without this wonderfully precise organization, the cell would lapse into chaos.

James E. Rothman was born 1950 in Haverhill, Massachusetts, USA. He received his PhD from Harvard Medical School in 1976, was a postdoctoral fellow at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and moved in 1978 to Stanford University in California, where he started his research on the vesicles of the cell. Rothman has also worked at Princeton University, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Institute and Columbia University. In 2008, he joined the faculty of Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, USA, where he is currently Professor and Chairman in the Department of Cell Biology.
Randy W. Schekman was born 1948 in St Paul, Minnesota, USA, studied at the University of California in Los Angeles and at Stanford University, where he obtained his PhD in 1974 under the supervision of Arthur Kornberg (Nobel Prize 1959) and in the same department that Rothman joined a few years later. In 1976, Schekman joined the faculty of the University of California at Berkeley, where he is currently Professor in the Department of Molecular and Cell biology. Schekman is also an investigator of Howard Hughes Medical Institute.
Thomas C. Südhof was born in 1955 in Göttingen, Germany. He studied at the Georg-August-Universität in Göttingen, where he received an MD in 1982 and a Doctorate in neurochemistry the same year. In 1983, he moved to the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, Texas, USA, as a postdoctoral fellow with Michael Brown and Joseph Goldstein (who shared the 1985 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine). Südhof became an investigator of Howard Hughes Medical Institute in 1991 and was appointed Professor of Molecular and Cellular Physiology at Stanford University in 2008.
Source: http://www.nobelprize.org