Sunday, October 28, 2012

New Union Minister List


Salman Khurshid was India's new external affairs minister as Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on Sunday effected a major revamp of his council of ministers, inducting 22 faces, including seven of cabinet rank, in what is said to be the last major ministerial shuffle before the 2014 general election.

Congress general secretary Rahul Gandhi did not join the government - leaving the field open for him to play a larger role in the party.

Several portfolios were changed, some new faces introduced, some elevated to cabinet rank and at least one old hand - Shashi Tharoor - was back in what is possibly UPA-2's last facelift - an exercise that jettisoned tainted ministers like Subodh Kant Sahay and roped veterans like Ambika Soni and S.M. Krishna back into the party organisation to gear up for the 2014 electoral battle.

"It is a combination of youth and experience," Manmohan Singh told reporters after the swearing ceremony at the Rashtrapati Bhavan where President Pranab Mukherjee administered the oath of office.

"The road ahead is full of challenges," he said on his priorities in the next few months.

Of the seven new ministers sworn in with cabinet rank, two are debutants -- former deputy chairperson of the Rajya Sabha K. Rehman Khan and Congress MP Chandresh Kumari Katoch. The other five, Ajay Maken, M.M. Pallam Raju, Dinsha Patel, Harish Rawat and Ashwini Kumar, have been elevated to the cabinet from ministers of state rank.

In the reshuffle of the pack of ministers, Khurshid got external affairs while his previous ministry, law, went to Ashwani Kumar. Khurshid had served as minister of state (junior foreign minister) under prime minister P V Narasimha Rao in the nineties.

Pallam Raju was made human resource development (HRD) minister in place of Kapil Sibal, who was left only with communication and IT. Pallam Raju's minister of state in HRD was Tharoor, who quit had to resign as minister of state for external affairs in 2010 over a controversy regarding his alleged conflict of interests in the affairs of IPL Kochi cricket team that was subsequently disbanded.

The crucial railways ministry, which had long been with one-time ally Trinamool Congress, was given to P.K. Bansal.

M. Veerappa Moily was given charge of petroleum, while his previous responsibilities of corporate affairs and power were split - Sachin Pilot was elevated as minister of state with independent charge of corporate affairs and Jyotiraditya Scindia got independent charge of power.

These two ministers were known to be close to Rahul Gandhi.

Rawat was made water resources minister and Katoch, who belongs to an erstwhile royal family in Rajasthan, is union culture minister. Maken was elevated as housing and poverty alleviation minister and Dinsha Patel as mines minister.

S. Jaipal Reddy got science and technology and Kamal Nath got additional charge of parliamentary affairs besides urban development.

Amongst the ministers of state sworn in were Congress spokesperson Manish Tewari who got independent charge of information and broadcasting. Earlier with Soni, the ministry has been downgraded.

Telugu actor Chiranjeevi, whose Praja Rajyam Party (PRP) merged with the Congress, got independent charge of the tourism ministry. Tourism is one of the country's major foreign exchange earners.

The careful rejig saw special attention being paid to Andhra Pradesh, a crucial state electorally for the Congress where Y.S. Jaganmohan Reddy has been gaining in influence and where the issue of separate statehood for Telangana has split ranks. It got the maximum representation of six with five new faces and one elevated to the cabinet rank.

Besides Pallam Raju, there was Chiranjeevi, Kotla Jaya Surya Prakash Reddy, Sarve Satyanarayana, Porika Balram Naik and Killi Kruparani.

There were also three new faces from West Bengal - Adhir R. Chowdhury, Deepa Dasmunsi and A.H. Khan Chowdhury, all known to be fiercely opposed to state chief minister Mamata Banerjee, whose Trinamool Congress broke ranks with the ruling coalition recently to bring about several ministerial vacancies.

The Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), the apex industry chamber, welcomed the reshuffle and said it has "ensured that there is a fair mix of youth and experience in the cabinet.

"India's young demographics is starting to get reflected in the political leadership of the country, which is only natural," it said.

List of portfolios of new minister and changes in portfolios of existing ministers. Changes in portfolios are indicated in red.

NEW CABINET MINISTERS:

K. Rahman Khan : Minority affairs

Dinsha J. Patel : Mines

Ajay Maken : Housing and urban poverty alleviation

M.M. Pallam Raju : Human resource development

Ashwani Kumar : Law and justice

Harish Rawat : Water resources

Chandresh Kumari Katoch : Culture

CHANGES IN PORTFOLIOS OF CABINET MINISTERS

M. Veerappa Moily : Petroleum and natural gas

S. Jaipal Reddy : Science and technology and earth sciences

Kamal Nath : Urban development and parliamentary affairs

Vayalar Ravi : Overseas Indian affairs

Kapil Sibal : Communications and information technology

CP Joshi : Road transport and highways

Kumari Selja : Social justice and empowerment

Pawan Kumar Bansal : Railways

Salman Khurshid : External affairs

Jairam Ramesh : Rural development

NEW MINISTERS OF STATE (INDEPENDENT CHARGE)

Manish Tewari : Information and broadcasting

K. Chiranjeevi : Tourism

CHANGES IN PORTFOLIOS OF MINISTERS OF STATE (INDEPENDENT CHARGE)

Jyotiraditya Scindia :Power

K.H. Muniappa : Micro, small and medium enterprises

Bharatsinh Madhavsinh Solanki : Drinking water and sanitation

Sachin Pilot : Corporate affairs

Jitendra Singh : Youth affairs and sports

NEW MINISTERS OF STATE

Shashi Tharoor : Human resources development

Kodikunnil Suresh : Labour and employment

Tariq Anwar : Agriculture and food processing industries

K.J. Surya Prakash Reddy : Railways

Ranee Narah : Tribal affairs

Adhir Ranjan Chowdhury : Railways

A.H. Khan Choudhury : Health and family welfare

Sarve Sathyanarayana : Road transport and highways

Ninong Ering : Minority affairs

Deepa Dasmunsi : Urban development

Porika Balram Naik :Social justice and empowerment

Killi Kruparani : Communications and information technology

Lalchand Kataria : Defence

CHANGES IN PORTFOLIOS OF MINISTERS OF STATE

E. Ahmed : External affairs

D. Purandeswari : Commerce and industry

Jitin Prasada : Defence and human resource development

S. Jagatharakshakan : New and renewable energy

RPN. Singh :Home

KC Venugopal : Civil aviation

Rajeev Shukla : Parliamentary affairs and planning.


Below is the full list of the ministers in the Union Cabinet after the reshuffle. 

Cabinet Ministers:
Manmohan Singh: Prime Minister, Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions, Ministry of Planning, Department of Atomic Energy, Department of Space
P Chidambaram: Finance
Sharad Pawar: Agriculture Minister, Minister of Food Processing Industries
AK Antony: Defence
Sushil Kumar Shinde: Minister of Home Affairs
K Rahman Khan: Minority Affairs
Dinsha J Patel: Mines
Ajay Maken: Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation
MM Pallam Raju: Human Resource Development
Ashwani Kumar: Law & Justice
Harish Rawat: Water Resources
Chandresh Kumari Katoch: Culture
M Veerappa Moily: Petroleum & Natural Gas
S Jaipal Reddy: Science & Technology and Earth Sciences
Kamal Nath: Urban Development & Parliamentary Affairs
Vayalar Ravi: Overseas Indian Affairs
Kapil Sibal: Communications & Information Technology
CP Joshi: Road Transport & Highways
Kumari Selja: Social Justice & Empowerment
Pawan Kumar Bansal: Railways
Salman Khurshid: External Affairs
Jairam Ramesh: Rural Development
Ghulam Nabi Azad: Minister of Health and Family Welfare
Dr. Farooq Abdullah: Minister of New and Renewable Energy
Ajit Singh: Civil Aviation
Mallikarjun Kharge: Minister of Labour and Employment
Kapil Sibal: Minister of Communications and Information Technology
Anand Sharma: Minister of Commerce and Industry, Minister of Textiles
GK Vasan: Shipping
MK Alagiri: Minister of Chemicals and Fertilizers
Praful Manoharbhai Patel: Minister of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises
Sriprakash Jaiswal: Minister of Coal
V Kishore Chandra Deo: Minister of Tribal Affairs, Minister of Panchayati Raj
Beni Prasad Verma: Minister of Steel
Ministers of State (Independent Charge)
Manish Tewari: Information & Broadcasting
K Chiranjeevi: Tourism
Jyotiraditya Madhavrao Scindia: Power
KH Muniyappa: Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises
Bharatsinh Madhavsinh Solanki: Drinking Water & Sanitation
Sachin Pilot: Corporate Affairs
Jitendra Singh: Youth Affairs & Sports
Krishna Tirath: Ministry of Women and Child Development
Kuruppassery Varkey Thomas: Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution
Srikant Kumar Jena: Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation
Jayanthi Natarajan: Ministry of Environment and Forests
Paban Singh Ghatowar: Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region, Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs
Ministers of state
Shashi Tharoor: Human Resource Development
Kodikunnil Suresh: Labour & Employment
Tariq Anwar: Agriculture & Food Processing Industries
KJ Surya Prakash Reddy: Railways
Ranee Narah: Tribal Affairs
Adhir Ranjan Chowdhury: Railways
AH Khan Choudhury: Health & Family Welfare
Sarvey Sathyanarayana: Road Transport & Highways
Ninong Ering: Minority Affairs
Deepa Dasmunsi: Urban Development
Porika Balram Naik: Social Justice & Empowerment
Dr (Smt) Kruparani Killi: Communications & Information Technology
Lalchand Kataria: Defence
E Ahamed: External Affairs
D Purandeswari: Commerce & Industry
Jitin Prasada: Defence & Human Resource Development
Dr S Jagathrakshakan: New & Renewable Energy
RPN Singh: Home
KC Venugopal: Civil Aviation
Rajeev Shukla: Parliamentary Affairs & Planning
V Narayanasamy: Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions, Prime Minister Office
Lakshmi Panabaka: Ministry of Textiles
Namo Narain Meena: Ministry of Finance
SS Palanimanickam: Ministry of Finance
Preneet Kaur: Ministry of External Affairs
D Napoleon: Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment
S Gandhiselvan: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
Tushar Amarsinh Chaudhary: Ministry of Road Transport and Highways
Pratik Prakashbapu Patil: Ministry of Coal
Ratanjit Pratap Narain Singh: Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas, Ministry of Corporate Affairs
Pradeep Kumar Jain Aditya: Ministry of Rural Development
Charan Das Mahant: Ministry of Agriculture and Ministry of Food Processing Industries, Ministry of Food Processing Industries
Milind Murli Deora: Ministry of Communications and Information Technology.
Source: Times of India & IBN Live.

Saturday, October 20, 2012

Maulana Azad National Fellowship (MANF)

UNIVERSITY GRANTS COMMISSION
BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG
NEW DELHI-110 002.







University Grants Commission invites applications for the award of 756 fellowships for the year 2012-13 under Maulana Azad National Fellowship (MANF) for the benefit of Minority Students belonging to Muslim, Sikh, Christian, Buddhist & Parsi communities for pursuing studies leading to M.Phil/Ph.D degree (full time) in Sciences, Engineering & Technology, Humanities & Social Sciences. Students availing themselves of the benefit of JRF of UGC-NET or UGC-CSIR NET are not eligible to apply.

Selection will be made on the basis of merit. The guidelines of the scheme, detailed terms and conditions of the fellowship, eligibility etc. may be seen by logging on to the UGC website www.ugc.ac.in.

Applications in the prescribed format may be submitted only through on line mode latest by one month’s time from the date of publication of the advertisement (non-extendable) by logging on to website www.ugc.ac.in/manf
The decision of the Commission with regard to selection of candidates for the award of fellowships shall be final.

NOTE:-
Applications submitted only through online mode shall be entertained and no application submitted in hard copy shall be entertained or considered for award of fellowship in any circumstances whatsoever.
Record of the non-selected candidates shall not be preserved beyond three months from the date of declaration of results, which will be notified in the UGC website.

ON-LINE SUBMISSION INTERFACE WILL BE AVAILABLE ON 20th October, 2012 ONWARDS.

OBJECTIVE:  
   
The objective of the Fellowship is to provide integrated five year fellowships in the form of financial assistance to students from minority communities, as notified by the Central Government to pursue higher studies such as M. Phil and Ph.D. The Fellowship will cover all Universities/Institutions recognized by the University Grants Commission (UGC) under section 2(f) and section 3 of the UGC Act and will be implemented by the Ministry of Minority Affairs through UGC for students belonging to the minority communities. The fellowship under Maulana Azad National Fellowship for minority students will be on the pattern of UGC Fellowships awarded to research students pursuing regular and full time M. Phil and Ph.D courses. The fellowship holders under this Fellowship will be known as Ministry of Minority Affairs scholars.

ELIGIBILITY:  
   
A candidate has to fulfill the following conditions to be eligible for award of this fellowship

(i) He/she should belong to one of the minority communities notified under Section 2 (c) of the National Commission for Minorities Act, 1992.

(ii) He/she should get admission and registration for regular and full time M.Phil/Ph.D courses in University/Academic Institution by fulfilling conditions of admission of that University/Institution, subject to provisions of the Fellowship as per advertisement of UGC.

(iii) The minority community students once considered eligible for the fellowship shall not be entitled to benefits under any other source, Central or State Government or any other body like UGC for the same study.

(iv) Prior clearance of NET/SLET examination will not be a prerequisite for award of Maulana Azad National Fellowship for minority students for M.Phil/Ph.D.

(v) In order to qualify for the award of JRF/ SRF the UGC norms would be applicable at pre-M.Phil and pre-Ph.D stage, respectively, including the minimum score of 50% at post graduate level.

TET 2012 Supplementary EXAM 2012 ANSWER KEY


Teacher Eligibility Test 2012 (Supplementary) Initial Key answers for both Paper I and Paper II (Except Minority Languages)
The initial answer keys for Paper – I and Paper II of Tamilnadu Teacher Eligibility Test held on 14.10.2012 is published. The candidates can making representation either by post (or) in person to Teachers Recruitment Board about any key answers published. The representation will be accepted upto 26.10.2012 5:30 p.m. The minority languages key will be uploaded on Monday (22.10.2012) afternoon.
(* Denotes deleted questions due to printing error)
Utmost care has been taken in preparing the key for Paper –I and Paper – II and in publishing them. Teachers Recruitment Board reserves the right to correct any errors that may have crept in. Incorrect answers will not confer any right of enforcement.

Monday, October 15, 2012

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2012


The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel for 2012 to
Alvin E. Roth
Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA, and Harvard Business School, Boston, MA, USA
and
Lloyd S. Shapley
University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
"for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design".


 

Alvin E. Roth               Lloyd S. Shapley

Stable allocations – from theory to pratice

This year's Prize concerns a central economic problem: how to match different agents as well as possible. For example, students have to be matched with schools, and donors of human organs with patients in need of a transplant. How can such matching be accomplished as efficiently as possible? What methods are beneficial to what groups? The prize rewards two scholars who have answered these questions on a journey from abstract theory on stable allocations to practical design of market institutions.
Lloyd Shapley used so-called cooperative game theory to study and compare different matching methods. A key issue is to ensure that a matching is stable in the sense that two agents cannot be found who would prefer each other over their current counterparts. Shapley and his colleagues derived specific methods – in particular, the so-called Gale-Shapley algorithm – that always ensure a stable matching. These methods also limit agents' motives for manipulating the matching process. Shapley was able to show how the specific design of a method may systematically benefit one or the other side of the market.
Alvin Roth recognized that Shapley's theoretical results could clarify the functioning of important markets in practice. In a series of empirical studies, Roth and his colleagues demonstrated that stability is the key to understanding the success of particular market institutions. Roth was later able to substantiate this conclusion in systematic laboratory experiments. He also helped redesign existing institutions for matching new doctors with hospitals, students with schools, and organ donors with patients. These reforms are all based on the Gale-Shapley algorithm, along with modifications that take into account specific circumstances and ethical restrictions, such as the preclusion of side payments.
Even though these two researchers worked independently of one another, the combination of Shapley's basic theory and Roth's empirical investigations, experiments and practical design has generated a flourishing field of research and improved the performance of many markets. This year's prize is awarded for an outstanding example of economic engineering.
Read more about this year's prize
Information for the Public

Scientific Background



Alvin E. Roth, U.S. citizen. Born 1951 in USA. Ph.D. 1974 from Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. George Gund Professor of Economics and Business Administration at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA, and Harvard Business School, Boston, MA, USA.
http://kuznets.fas.hawhat is mean Segmentation fault (core dumped) error in fortran? rvard.edu/~aroth/alroth.html

Lloyd S. Shapley, U.S. citizen. Born 1923 in Cambridge, MA, USA. Ph.D. 1953 from Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA. Professor Emeritus at University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
www.econ.ucla.edu/shapley/index.html

The Prize amount: SEK 8 million, to be shared equally between the Laureates.
Contact: Erik Huss, Press Officer, phone +46 8 673 95 44, +46 70 673 96 50, erik.huss@kva.se
Fredrik All, Editor, Phone +46 8 673 95 63, +46 70 673 95 63, fredrik.all@kva.se
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, founded in 1739, is an independent organization whose overall objective is to promote the sciences and strengthen their influence in society. The Academy takes special responsibility for the natural sciences and mathematics, but endeavours to promote the exchange of ideas between various disciplines.

Friday, October 12, 2012

The Nobel Peace Prize 2012



The Nobel Peace Prize 2012 was awarded to European Union (EU) "for over six decades contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe".


The Nobel Peace Prize for 2012

The Norwegian Nobel Committee has decided that the Nobel Peace Prize for 2012 is to be awarded to the European Union (EU). The union and its forerunners have for over six decades contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe.
In the inter-war years, the Norwegian Nobel Committee made several awards to persons who were seeking reconciliation between Germany and France. Since 1945, that reconciliation has become a reality. The dreadful suffering in World War II demonstrated the need for a new Europe. Over a seventy-year period, Germany and France had fought three wars. Today war between Germany and France is unthinkable. This shows how, through well-aimed efforts and by building up mutual confidence, historical enemies can become close partners.
In the 1980s, Greece, Spain and Portugal joined the EU. The introduction of democracy was a condition for their membership. The fall of the Berlin Wall made EU membership possible for several Central and Eastern European countries, thereby opening a new era in European history. The division between East and West has to a large extent been brought to an end; democracy has been strengthened; many ethnically-based national conflicts have been settled.
The admission of Croatia as a member next year, the opening of membership negotiations with Montenegro, and the granting of candidate status to Serbia all strengthen the process of reconciliation in the Balkans. In the past decade, the possibility of EU membership for Turkey has also advanced democracy and human rights in that country.
The EU is currently undergoing grave economic difficulties and considerable social unrest. The Norwegian Nobel Committee wishes to focus on what it sees as the EU's most important result: the successful struggle for peace and reconciliation and for democracy and human rights. The stabilizing part played by the EU has helped to transform most of Europe from a continent of war to a continent of peace.
The work of the EU represents "fraternity between nations", and amounts to a form of the "peace congresses" to which Alfred Nobel refers as criteria for the Peace Prize in his 1895 will.
Oslo, 12 October 2012

Thursday, October 11, 2012

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2012


The Nobel Prize in Literature for 2012 is awarded to the Chinese writer Mo Yan
who with hallucinatory realism merges folk tales, history and the contemporary”.

Mo Yan
Born: 1955, Gaomi, China
Residence at the time of the award: China
Prize motivation: "who with hallucinatory realism merges folk tales, history and the contemporary".

Wednesday, October 10, 2012

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2012


The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2012 was awarded jointly to Robert J. Lefkowitz and Brian K. Kobilka "for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors".

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2012 to


Robert J. Lefkowitz
Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA

and
Brian K. Kobilka
Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA
"for studies of G-protein–coupled receptors"

Smart receptors on cell surfaces

Your body is a fine-tuned system of interactions between billions of cells. Each cell has tiny receptors that enable it to sense its environment, so it can adapt to new situtations. Robert Lefkowitz and Brian Kobilka are awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for groundbreaking discoveries that reveal the inner workings of an important family of such receptors: G-protein–coupled receptors.
For a long time, it remained a mystery how cells could sense their environment. Scientists knew that hormones such as adrenalin had powerful effects: increasing blood pressure and making the heart beat faster. They suspected that cell surfaces contained some kind of recipient for hormones. But what these receptors actually consisted of and how they worked remained obscured for most of the 20th Century.

Lefkowitz started to use radioactivity in 1968 in order to trace cells' receptors. He attached an iodine isotope to various hormones, and thanks to the radiation, he managed to unveil several receptors, among those a receptor for adrenalin: β-adrenergic receptor. His team of researchers extracted the receptor from its hiding place in the cell wall and gained an initial understanding of how it works.
The team achieved its next big step during the 1980s. The newly recruited Kobilka accepted the challenge to isolate the gene that codes for the β-adrenergic receptor from the gigantic human genome. His creative approach allowed him to attain his goal. When the researchers analyzed the gene, they discovered that the receptor was similar to one in the eye that captures light. They realized that there is a whole family of receptors that look alike and function in the same manner.


Today this family is referred to as G-protein–coupled receptors. About a thousand genes code for such receptors, for example, for light, flavour, odour, adrenalin, histamine, dopamine and serotonin. About half of all medications achieve their effect through G-protein–coupled receptors.
The studies by Lefkowitz and Kobilka are crucial for understanding how G-protein–coupled receptors function. Furthermore, in 2011, Kobilka achieved another break-through; he and his research team captured an image of the β-adrenergic receptor at the exact moment that it is activated by a hormone and sends a signal into the cell. This image is a molecular masterpiece – the result of decades of research.

Read more about this year's prize
Popular Information
Scientific Background




Robert J. Lefkowitz, U.S. citizen. Born 1943 in New York, NY, USA. M.D. 1966 from Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.Investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute. James B. Duke Professor of Medicine, and Professor of Biochemistry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.
www.lefkolab.org
Brian K. Kobilka, U.S. citizen. Born 1955 in Little Falls, MN, USA. M.D. 1981 from Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. Professor of Medicine, and Professor of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.
http://med.stanford.edu/kobilkalab

The Prize amount: SEK 8 million, to be shared equally between the Laureates.
Contacts: Erik Huss, Press Officer, phone +46 8 673 95 44, +46 70 673 96 50, erik.huss@kva.se
Ann Fernholm, Editor, Phone +46 70 750 22 16, ann.fernholm@kva.se

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, founded in 1739, is an independent organization whose overall objective is to promote the sciences and strengthen their influence in society. The Academy takes special responsibility for the natural sciences and mathematics, but endeavours to promote the exchange of ideas between various disciplins.

Tuesday, October 9, 2012

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2012

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2012 was awarded jointly to Serge Haroche and David J. Wineland "for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems"



 
Serge Haroche                            David J. Wineland

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Nobel Prize in Physics for 2012 to
Serge Haroche
Collège de France and Ecole Normale Supérieure, Paris, France
and
David J. Wineland
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and University of Colorado Boulder, CO, USA
"for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems"

 

Particle control in a quantum world

Serge Haroche and David J. Wineland have independently invented and developed methods for measuring and manipulating individual particles while preserving their quantum-mechanical nature, in ways that were previously thought unattainable.
The Nobel Laureates have opened the door to a new era of experimentation with quantum physics by demonstrating the direct observation of individual quantum particles without destroying them. For single particles of light or matter the laws of classical physics cease to apply and quantum physics takes over. But single particles are not easily isolated from their surrounding environment and they lose their mysterious quantum properties as soon as they interact with the outside world. Thus many seemingly bizarre phenomena predicted by quantum physics could not be directly observed, and researchers could only carry out thought experiments that might in principle manifest these bizarre phenomena.
Through their ingenious laboratory methods Haroche and Wineland together with their research groups have managed to measure and control very fragile quantum states, which were previously thought inaccessible for direct observation. The new methods allow them to examine, control and count the particles.
Their methods have many things in common. David Wineland traps electrically charged atoms, or ions, controlling and measuring them with light, or photons.
Serge Haroche takes the opposite approach: he controls and measures trapped photons, or particles of light, by sending atoms through a trap.
Both Laureates work in the field of quantum optics studying the fundamental interaction between light and matter, a field which has seen considerable progress since the mid-1980s. Their ground-breaking methods have enabled this field of research to take the very first steps towards building a new type of super fast computer based on quantum physics. Perhaps the quantum computer will change our everyday lives in this century in the same radical way as the classical computer did in the last century. The research has also led to the construction of extremely precise clocks that could become the future basis for a new standard of time, with more than hundred-fold greater precision than present-day caesium clocks.
Read more about this year's prize
Information for the Public
Pdf 365 Kb
Scientific Background
Pdf 410 Kb.



Serge Haroche, French citizen. Born 1944 in Casablanca, Morocco. Ph.D. 1971 from Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France. Professor at Collège de France and Ecole Normale Supérieure, Paris, France.
www.college-de-france.fr/site/en-serge-haroche/biography.htm
David J. Wineland, U.S. citizen. Born 1944 in Milwaukee, WI, USA. Ph.D. 1970 from Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA. Group Leader and NIST Fellow at National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and University of Colorado Boulder, CO, USA
www.nist.gov/pml/div688/grp10/index.cfm
Prize amount: SEK 8 million, to be shared equally between the Laureates.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012


The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012 was awarded jointly to Sir John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka "for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent".


The Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet has today decided to award

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012
jointly to
John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka
for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed
to become pluripotent

 John B. Gurdon
Shinya Yamanaka
Summary:
The Nobel Prize recognizes two scientists who discovered that mature, specialised cells can be reprogrammed to become immature cells capable of developing into all tissues of the body. Their findings have revolutionised our understanding of how cells and organisms develop.
John B. Gurdon discovered in 1962 that the specialisation of cells is reversible. In a classic experiment, he replaced the immature cell nucleus in an egg cell of a frog with the nucleus from a mature intestinal cell. This modified egg cell developed into a normal tadpole. The DNA of the mature cell still had all the information needed to develop all cells in the frog.
Shinya Yamanaka discovered more than 40 years later, in 2006, how intact mature cells in mice could be reprogrammed to become immature stem cells. Surprisingly, by introducing only a few genes, he could reprogram mature cells to become pluripotent stem cells, i.e. immature cells that are able to develop into all types of cells in the body.
These groundbreaking discoveries have completely changed our view of the development and cellular specialisation. We now understand that the mature cell does not have to be confined forever to its specialised state. Textbooks have been rewritten and new research fields have been established. By reprogramming human cells, scientists have created new opportunities to study diseases and develop methods for diagnosis and therapy.

Life – a journey towards increasing specialisation

All of us developed from fertilized egg cells. During the first days after conception, the embryo consists of immature cells, each of which is capable of developing into all the cell types that form the adult organism. Such cells are called pluripotent stem cells. With further development of the embryo, these cells give rise to nerve cells, muscle cells, liver cells and all other cell types - each of them specialised to carry out a specific task in the adult body. This journey from immature to specialised cell was previously considered to be unidirectional. It was thought that the cell changes in such a way during maturation that it would no longer be possible for it to return to an immature, pluripotent stage.

Frogs jump backwards in development

John B. Gurdon challenged the dogma that the specialised cell is irreversibly committed to its fate. He hypothesised that its genome might still contain all the information needed to drive its development into all the different cell types of an organism. In 1962, he tested this hypothesis by replacing the cell nucleus of a frog's egg cell with a nucleus from a mature, specialised cell derived from the intestine of a tadpole. The egg developed into a fully functional, cloned tadpole and subsequent repeats of the experiment yielded adult frogs. The nucleus of the mature cell had not lost its capacity to drive development to a fully functional organism.
Gurdon's landmark discovery was initially met with scepticism but became accepted when it had been confirmed by other scientists. It initiated intense research and the technique was further developed, leading eventually to the cloning of mammals. Gurdon's research taught us that the nucleus of a mature, specialized cell can be returned to an immature, pluripotent state. But his experiment involved the removal of cell nuclei with pipettes followed by their introduction into other cells. Would it ever be possible to turn an intact cell back into a pluripotent stem cell?

A roundtrip journey – mature cells return to a stem cell state

Shinya Yamanaka was able to answer this question in a scientific breakthrough more than 40 years after Gurdon´s discovery. His research concerned embryonal stem cells, i.e. pluripotent stem cells that are isolated from the embryo and cultured in the laboratory. Such stem cells were initially isolated from mice by Martin Evans (Nobel Prize 2007) and Yamanaka tried to find the genes that kept them immature. When several of these genes had been identified, he tested whether any of them could reprogram mature cells to become pluripotent stem cells.
Yamanaka and his co-workers introduced these genes, in different combinations, into mature cells from connective tissue, fibroblasts, and examined the results under the microscope. They finally found a combination that worked, and the recipe was surprisingly simple. By introducing four genes together, they could reprogram their fibroblasts into immature stem cells!
The resulting induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) could develop into mature cell types such as fibroblasts, nerve cells and gut cells. The discovery that intact, mature cells could be reprogrammed into pluripotent stem cells was published in 2006 and was immediately considered a major breakthrough.

From surprising discovery to medical use

The discoveries of Gurdon and Yamanaka have shown that specialised cells can turn back the developmental clock under certain circumstances. Although their genome undergoes modifications during development, these modifications are not irreversible. We have obtained a new view of the development of cells and organisms.
Research during recent years has shown that iPS cells can give rise to all the different cell types of the body. These discoveries have also provided new tools for scientists around the world and led to remarkable progress in many areas of medicine. iPS cells can also be prepared from human cells.
For instance, skin cells can be obtained from patients with various diseases, reprogrammed, and examined in the laboratory to determine how they differ from cells of healthy individuals. Such cells constitute invaluable tools for understanding disease mechanisms and so provide new opportunities to develop medical therapies.

Sir John B. Gurdon was born in 1933 in Dippenhall, UK. He received his Doctorate from the University of Oxford in 1960 and was a postdoctoral fellow at California Institute of Technology. He joined Cambridge University, UK, in 1972 and has served as Professor of Cell Biology and Master of Magdalene College. Gurdon is currently at the Gurdon Institute in Cambridge.
Shinya Yamanaka was born in Osaka, Japan in 1962. He obtained his MD in 1987 at Kobe University and trained as an orthopaedic surgeon before switching to basic research. Yamanaka received his PhD at Osaka City University in 1993, after which he worked at the Gladstone Institute in San Francisco and Nara Institute of Science and Technology in Japan. Yamanaka is currently Professor at Kyoto University and also affiliated with the Gladstone Institute.

Key publications:

Gurdon, J.B. (1962). The developmental capacity of nuclei taken from intestinal epithelium cells of feeding tadpoles. Journal of Embryology and Experimental Morphology 10:622-640.
Takahashi, K., Yamanaka, S. (2006). Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors. Cell 126:663-676.

Monday, October 8, 2012

CALL FOR PAPERS @ IJERT





International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology (IJERT)
ISSN: 2278 - 0181
CALL FOR PAPERS - Vol. 1 Issue. 8 (October - 2012)


Dear Sir/Madam,

International Journal of  Engineering Research and Technology (IJERT) is the one of the renowned official International scientific publication from Engineering ,Science and Research Support Academy (ESRSA).

It is our immense pleasure to invite you to submit manuscripts of your research/review paper/manuscript for publication in our popular e-journal, IJERT "International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology". IJERT is an online blind peer-reviewed journal dedicated to the engineering & science research work and latest trends in technology.

The IJERT offers benefits specific to journal publications:

- Fast & Easy paper publishing process
- IJERT provides "Individual Hard copy of "Certificate of Publication" to all published paper's Authors.
- Open Access Journal Database for High visibility and promotion of your articles
- Inclusion in all Major Bibliographic open Journal Databases
- A global list of prestigious academic journal reviewers networked through ESRSA Publication.

For more Details : http://www.ijert.org/IJERTcall-for-paper/october-2012

Topics Covered: http://www.ijert.org/topics

Submit your Manuscript/Paper:  http://www.ijeIJERTrt.org/for-authors/submit-manuscript

IJERT is now accepting manuscripts for its next issue, Volume 1, Issue 8 (October - 2012). Authors are encouraged to contribute to the journal by submitting papers that clarify new research results, projects, surveying works , review, and industrial experiences that describe significant advances in field of Engineering Science, Research & Technology.

IMPORTANT DATES:-

Last Date of Research Submission : October 18, 2012

Acceptance Notification: within 4-6 days from the date of manuscript submission

Date of Publishing : October 30, 2012


Kindly forward this e-mail to your Friends / Students/ Colleagues / Associates and Fellow Researchers who may be benefited out of this.


Thanking You,
www.ijert.org

Saturday, October 6, 2012

International Conference on Recent Trends in Applied Physics & Material Science


Welcome to RAM-2013
This conference gives an exposure to its participants on advanced research in material science and technology both theoretical and experimental through the invited talks and contributory presentations by the experts in various fields. This will encourage to participants to understand and work in this field of research as well as study their academics. Besides there will be an ample opportunity for the participants to have informal discussions on topics of mutual interest with the invited speakers for developing future collaboration.

The objective of the RAM-2013 is not only to provide a forum of presentation and discussion of new results but also to introduce advanced research in material science and technology to participants of science and engineering. This conference will gather a group of international scientists and researchers interested in material science & technology, to discuss the invaluable importance of techniques and simulations in understanding the materials, as well as the recent developments of materials. The conference will bring together the existing and developing knowledge in this field.



Important Dates:

Last date for Abstract & Paper submission : November 30, 2012

Intimation of Accepted paper to authors : December 10, 2012

Last date of Registration for Accepted Paper : December 25, 2012

Registration is open for attending the conference till 01 Feb. 2013.


For more info:  http://www.ram2013.com 

Ph. D at TIFR

Research Opportunities for exceptionally talented and strongly motivated students.
The Tata Institute of Fundamental Research is India's premier institution for advanced research in fundamental sciences. The Institute runs a graduate programme leading to the award of Ph.D. degree, as well as M.Sc. and Integrated Ph.D. in certain subjects. With its distinguished faculty, world class facilities and stimulating research environment, it is an ideal place for aspiring scientists to initiate their career.
The Graduate Programme at TIFR is classified into the following Subjects - Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Computer & Systems Sciences (including Communications and Math. Finance) and Science Education. It is conducted at the Mumbai campus and various National Centres of TIFR. 

Application Procedure

Students can apply online.  Please follow appropriate link on this website for filling up the application form.  Read the instructions carefully before you start filling up the online application form.
Manual Applications: Students from remote areas who do not have access to internet may apply manually.   They may send a request for application form (without DD) along with a self-addressed stamped (Rs 20/-) envelope (size 25cm x 17cm) superscribed "GS-2013 (Subject)" to :
For Biology: Admissions Section, NCBS, Bangalore  .
For other subjects, except Science Education: Universvity Cell , TIFR, Mumbai.
The filled-in application form should be sent along with DD and two passport size photographs (one pasted on the application and one stapled to it).
Students may appear for the written test in multiple subjects if the timings do not clash.  Please send a separate application (including Demand Draft) for each subject. In case of online applicants, students will have to re-register with a different email id.
Students who wish to apply online and make payment by Demand Draft may send the Demand Draft with their name, reference code and telephone number written behind it.  Alternately, students can make online payment through internet banking or by Debit/Credit Card. 
For mailing address and contact information, please refer to the Contact Info link.

Application Fee & Payment

Application Fee (Non-Refundable):
Rs 500/- for online applications and Rs 550/- for manual applications.  Female candidates are exempted from payment of application fee. 
Rs 800/- for students taking the test as walk-in candidates (Please see the walk-ins section for details).  
Application fee can be paid online thru internet banking or by Debit/Credit Card or by Demand Draft. 

Online Payment:
After the online payment transaction is successful, please login to your account on our website by using your reference code as your user id and check the payment status of your application.    Normally, online payments are received within 2 working days and a auto email is sent by the system acknowledging the payment.  If your transaction has been successful and your account has been debited and you do not receive the acknowledgement email within 7 days, neither your payment status is updated in your account, you may write to the email ids as given in "Contact Info" section.
Demand Draft:
Biology: DD should be drawn on State Bank of India in favour of "National Centre for Biological Science" payable at Bangalore. 
Other Subjects: DD should be drawn on State Bank of India in favour of "Tata Institute of Fundamental Research" payable at Mumbai.
For mailing address and contact information, please refer to the Contact Info link.
DDs may be sent by speed post/courier with your name, reference code and telephone number written behind it.
Online payment link will be active upto November 2, 2012.

DDs sent by post/courier will be accepted upto November 2, 2012
Please note:
Instructions for downloading/printing  of Hall tickets will be intimated by email, only after receipt of application fee/approval of fee waiver. 

Application Fee Waiver

A waiver of the application fee on grounds of financial distress may be requested by a letter from the Principal or the Head of the Department justifying the request.  The letter/recommendation from the Principal/HOD should be on the official letter head duly signed and stamped.  
Students applying online may click the fee waiver option in the payment section of the application form and send the letter from the Principal / HOD along with a print of the application. For mailing address refer Contact Us link.
Students applying manually may send the letter from the Principal/HOD along with the filled-in application form and photographs.
Please note that applications with fee waiver request will be issued hall tickets subject to the approval of the competent authority and  availability of seats at the centre of their choice.

Important Dates

Publication of Notification:
     
University News Journal    : September 24, 2012
      Current Science Journal    : October 10, 2012 
      Employment News             :  October 13, 212

Nationwide Entrance Examination:
     
Sunday, December 9, 2012
Last date for application:  October 26, 2012

      Online payment link will be active upto November 2, 2012

     
DDs sent by post/courier will be accepted upto November 2, 2012
GATE Scored based applications to Systems Science:
       
Opens on : February 1, 2012
        Closes on  : March 25, 2013
Results of the Nationwide Entrance Examination:     January 15, 2013



Post-Doctoral Positions @ IUCAA


1. Vaidya-Raychaudhuri Post-Doctoral Positions

Applications are invited from researchers with outstanding track record for a newly constituted Vaidya-Raychaudhuri Post-doctoral Fellowship in Astronomy and Astrophysics. The duration of the fellowship is typically for two to three years, but is extendable up to a maximum period of five years based on performance. The fellowship will carry a remuneration of Indian Rs. 40,000/- per month for the first two years and Indian Rs.45,000/- per month in the subsequent years. There will be a contingency grant of Indian Rs.1,50,000/- per year throughout the tenure. The fellowship also includes rent free accommodation on campus as well as medical and other benefits. Facilities required for research are provided institutionally. A post-doctoral fellow with excellent performance will be considered for a tenured position.

Research areas at IUCAA:

• Cosmology and large scale structure
• Galactic and extragalactic astronomy
• General relativity
• Gravitational waves
• High energy astrophysics
• Instrumentation for astronomy
• Optical, UV, X-ray, and radio astronomy
• Quantum gravity, including string theory
• Solar Astronomy
• Virtual observatory

Facilities at IUCAA include a network of state-of-the-art computers, high performance computing clusters, high speed internet connections, mirror sites of important databases, a very well equipped instrumentation laboratory, and a library with exhaustive collection of books and periodicals.

IUCAA operates a 2 m optical telescope, IUCAA Girawali Observatory (IGO), at Girawali which is about 80 km from IUCAA campus. IUCAA is a partner in the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), which is a 10m class telescope suited for imaging and spectroscopic observations of faint and distant objects. Support is also available for guest observing from other international facilities. Further information can be obtained from the IUCAA website.

Interested applicants may apply online at: http://www.iucaa.ernet.in/pdf
ONLY ONLINE APPLICATIONS WILL BE ACCEPTED.


The last date for submission of applications is October 31, 2012. Candidates will be informed of the result by the end of December 2012. Successful candidates are normally expected to commence their fellowship during 2013.
**********************************
2. Regular Post-Doctoral Positions

Applications are invited for post-doctoral fellowships in Astronomy and Astrophysics, for durations which are typically for two to three years, but are extendable up to a maximum of five years based on performance. The fellowship includes a remuneration, contingency grant, rent free accommodation on campus as well as medical and other benefits. Facilities required for research are provided institutionally. Post-doctoral fellows with excellent performance will be considered for a tenured position.

Research areas at IUCAA:

• Cosmology and large scale structure
• Galactic and extragalactic astronomy
• General relativity
• Gravitational waves
• High energy astrophysics
• Instrumentation for astronomy
• Optical, UV, X-ray, and radio astronomy
• Quantum gravity, including string theory
• Solar Astronomy
• Virtual observatory

Facilities at IUCAA include a network of state-of-the-art computers, high performance computing clusters, high speed internet connections, mirror sites of important databases, a very well equipped instrumentation laboratory, and a library with exhaustive collection of books and periodicals.

IUCAA operates a 2 m optical telescope, IUCAA Girawali Observatory (IGO), at Girawali which is about 80 km from IUCAA campus. IUCAA is a partner in the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), which is a 10m class telescope suited for imaging and spectroscopic observations of faint and distant objects. Support is also available for guest observing from other international facilities. Further information can be obtained from the IUCAA website.

A few positions are available specifically for IGO, ASTROSAT, and instrumentation related research work. Applicants interested in these positions should mention their interest specifically.

Applicants should send a curriculum vitae, list of publications, and research plans, and arrange for three confidential reference letters to be sent independently.

A few positions are available specifically for IGO, ASTROSAT, and instrumentation related research work. Applicants interested in these positions should mention their interest specifically.

Interested applicants may apply online at http://www.iucaa.ernet.in/pdf
ONLY ONLINE APPLICATIONS WILL BE ACCEPTED.
The last date for submission of applications is October 31, 2012. Candidates will be informed of the result by the end of December 2012. Successful candidates are normally expected to commence their fellowship during 2013.

Monday, October 1, 2012

TNPSC VAO 2012 Exam Answer Key


Tentative Answer Keys

 Sl.No.
Subject Name
VILLAGE ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICER
 (Date of Examination:30.09.2012)
 
1
2
3
Note: Right Answer has been tick marked in the respective choices for each question. Representations if any shall be sent so as to reach the Commission's Office within 7 days. Representations received after 08th October 2012 will receive no attention.